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Applied Anthropology

Search Volume 28, No. 1-2 of The Applied Anthropologist


The Applied Anthropologist

Volume 28, Numbers 1 and 2, 2008

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Moral Sources of Competitiveness: Revisiting Moral Economy from an Organizational Perspective
Marietta L. Baba
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 3-39

This essay explores the intersection of morality and economy, not only within pre-capialist or market-based economies, but across the entire spectrum of human experience, in evolutionary as well as historical and comparative terms. for this broader investigation, a more dynamic conception of moral economy is required, with these constructs on equal terms, more or less, as two related domains of human experience. A historical perspective in particular may enhance our understanding of the moral economy dynamic more generally, especially as it sheds light on Thompson's (1971) notion of a moral consensus, rooted in past notions of legitimacy. In some circumstances, my argument goes, such as Meiji Japan, a past moral consensus may be re-contextualized and reconstituted following the transition from feudalism to capitalism, and may continue to have influence, albeit in a modified form, after this period. Cooperation is then encouraged, and/or compliance, across diverse social groups, leading to economic outcomes that are, over the long term, beneficial for large sectors of the population. This essay also explores relationships among the economic and moral principles upon which are grounded the conditions for global competitiveness. The moral sources of competitiveness discussed in this essay are those that are situated historically and specific to a particular moral-economy dynamics in this case, those created within the institutional framework of the Toyota Motor Corporation.

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Health Effects of Pesticide Exposure among Filipino Rice Farmers
Satish K. Kedia and Florencia G. Palis

No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 40 - 59

This article discusses the acute and chronic health effects of pesticide exposure among Filipino rice farmers. Data were collected from 50 farmers during 2002 and 2003 using a semi-structured questionnaire to elicit demographic information, various aspects of farming life, types and extent of pesticide use, exposure means, and self-reported acute and chronic illness experiences. Study participants had been farming for 20 years and applying an average of four to six pesticides approximately three times a year. The most common acute health problems reported by farmers were fatigue (52.0%), dizziness (50.0%), and body pain (32.0%). Farmers reported 43 different types of chronic health-related symptoms which were categorized as neurological (noted by 98.0% of farmers), dermal (90.0%), systemic (88.0%), respiratory (88.0%), ophthalmic (82.0%), gastrointestinal/renal (80.0%), and cardiovascular (56.0%). Chronic health problems were significantly lower for farmers who sold emptied pesticide containers (B=-3.479, p=0.01), for those with higher annual household incomes (B=-0.000, p=0.01), and for those who had attained vocational training compared to elementary school alone (B=6.101, p=0.02). Please see six tables of data following the article’s text.

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Food Service and College Operations: A Business Anthropological Case Study, USA
Robert G. Tian, Lela Gramling, Robin Byrd, Linwood Epps, Danielle Keith, and Ryan Lick
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 60 - 75

Business anthropologists have attempted to solve various problems within particular firms using ethnographic techniques, which have become increasingly popular in business industries worldwide. Consumer behavior and marketing strategies in the food industry have been studied extensively. The goal of this study is to use anthropological methods to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of food-service management on one college campus. The authors hope this research will provide a comprehensive overview of managerial methods and highlight areas for improvement within the structure of the food service at an educational institution. Please note that the questionnaires employed in this study are not reprinted here but are available upon request from the principal author.

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Between Science and Life: A Comparison of the Fieldwork Experiences of Bronislaw Malinowski and Kirsten Hastrup
Marta Kolankiewicz-Lundberg
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 76 - 88

Through two cases discussed in this article, I compare the personal experiences of anthropologists doing fieldwork in another culture. The first is that of pioneer Polish anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942), transplanted to London, and his journey to Mailu on the island of New Guinea and later the Trobriand Islands. The second is that of contemporary Danish anthropologist Kirsten Hastrup and her fieldwork in Iceland. Material is drawn from Malinowski’s A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term, written between 1914 and 1918 and published in 1967. I used the entire text published for the first time in Polish in 2002 to analyze his social interactions in fieldwork settings, as well as to show how his diary has influenced contemporary anthropology. For Hastrup’s field experiences, I draw upon published works of hers listed here as well as upon her work with the Odin Theater of Holstebro, Denmark. I have tried to present the being there of these two anthropologists not only as cultural phenomena with phase changes over time, but also to highlight crucial epistemological and ethical dilemmas for anthropology.  

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Rebuilding the Intergenerational Community in Northeastern Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
Harley C. Schreck, Jr.
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 89 - 97

Older adults living in central city neighborhoods often find themselves in the midst of a rapidly changing mix of ethnicities and lifestyles. The neighborhoods in which they have aged have changed along with their support networks that are often challenged. This situation, in turn, leads to difficulties in their meeting daily needs. They are not enjoying the benefits of strong social capital that would be essential for them to thrive in their neighborhoods. This study looks at an example of community building in northeastern Minneapolis intended to rebuild inter-generational aspects and thereby enrich social support networks for older adults. Qualitative methods of research show that this effort was successful in many respects, with evidence of increased intergenerational interaction and support. Significant questions remain, however, as to the sustainability of this pattern once the process of intergenerational community building has ceased.

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Cultural Pluralism and Constructed Space: Two Corner Stores in the Lykins Neighborhood of Kansas City, Missouri, USA 
Molly DesBaillets
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 98 - 104

This article examines business space in a culturally plural neighborhood of Kansas City, Missouri. Business space is constructed in socially and symbolically meaningful ways to embody both the personal identities of owners and their relationships to the community. Material culture illuminates socially constructed space that bespeaks differences in inclusive and exclusive relations toward customers and the community. Space is also symbolically constructed, material representation of owners’ cultural heritage, and that of the historical neighborhood culture, provides insight about the bicultural identity of store owners. Constructed space offers meaningful insight about the structure of everyday interethnic interaction. Analysis of material culture is an important means by which to understand the cultural, economic, and social fiber of diverse urban contexts. Examination of constructed space in culturally diverse neighborhoods is a means to understand differential cultural invocation and the relationship between business owners, their clientele, and the broader community.

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Body Mass Image (BMImage): Attractiveness Ideals, Obesity, and Implications for Weight-Control
David L. Kozak, Susan Kraus, Mary Lomayma, Joy Seumptewa, and Carol Massengill
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 105 - 114

Sustainable weight reduction via clinical or community interventions for some Native Americans (and presumably other populations) may be linked to a culture’s body image construct, what we call body mass image (BMImage). BMImage is a supplemental concept to the conventional body mass index (BMI) quantitative diagnostic measure, and BMImage is defined as a culturally-specific, historically generated, weight-health-aesthetic and explanatory model. In a study using a nine-point body image scale, 49 Native Americans (26 males and 23 females) responded to 15 questions regarding their perceptions of weight, health and attractiveness ideals in relation to the scale. It was found that the overweight and obese study participants think they have a lower BMI than actually measured; that they are satisfied with their current appearance, and that they think their current weight is not unhealthy. These preliminary findings may indicate a difference in care giver (BMI) and patient (BMImage) notions regarding weight and health. We contend that BMI, as a universal measure, cannot account for culturally specific constructions of body weight and perception that may affect weight control advice and outcomes.

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Integrated Book Review Set: Insight and Imagination: A Study in Knowing and Not-Knowing in Organizational Life by Howard F. Stein

Darby C. Stapp
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 115 - 118

Richard V. Badalamente
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 119 - 123

Satish K. Kedia
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 124 - 125

Pennie L. Magee
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 126 - 128

Howard F. Stein
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 129 - 130

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Integrated Book Review Set: Fundamentals of Forensic Anthropology by Linda L. Klepinger

Jeri DeYoung
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 131 - 132

Gabrielle Jones
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 133 - 134

Stephanie Matlock-Cooley and Kimberly Spurr
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 135 - 136

Linda L. Klepinger
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 137

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Integrated Book Review Set: Rance Hood: Mystic Painter by James J. Hester and Rance Hood

L. Charles Pettit
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 138 - 139

Edward M. Chamberlin
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 140 - 141

James J. Hester
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 142 - 143

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Commentary: For 2007, The 15th Annual Omer C. Stewart Memorial Award: Three Rules of Straight Talk
Lawrence F. Van Horn
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 144 - 146

Talk is an important category of culture in general and of our culture of anthropology in particular. By sharing three parting participant-observations as the outgoing editor in chief of The Applied Anthropologist, I offer practices about written talk to bear in mind. My remarks here are pertinent to my grateful acceptance of the Fifteenth Annual Omer Call Stewart Memorial Award of the High Plains Society for Applied Anthropology presented to me talk-wise by fellow anthropologists Lenora Bohren and Peter Van Arsdale. I talked about the need for clear and simple talk, not jargon, however useful as specialized vocabulary jargon might be. That talk took place on the Auraria Campus shared by the University of Colorado at Denver, the Metropolitan State College of Denver, and the Community College of Denver on April 28, 2007, at the twenty-seventh annual meeting of High Plains Society for Applied Anthropology.

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Commentary: ...One Man and One (?) Woman
Edgar A. Gregersen
No. 1, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 147 - 149

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Engaging Undergraduate Students in Collaborative Research: The Challenge of Combining Teaching with Practice
Kreg T. Ettenger
No. 2, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 152 - 162

This paper explores the various dimensions of incorporating applied anthropology into teaching through classroom and field experiences. The context for this discussion is my developing program of research on tourism in the Cree communities of Northern Quebec, where I worked as a consultant for ten years before taking a teaching position. This paper explores the positive aspects of involving undergraduate students in applied research, including the impact on their skills and understandings. It also looks at the challenges of combining teaching with practice, from the pedagogical to the logistical. Finally, I discuss how the added dimension of collaborative research further complicates the combination of teaching and practice, while creating new opportunities for exploring important methodological and ethical issues. [engaged learning, undergraduate research, field courses, tourism, collaborative research]

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Decolonizing Higher Education: The Hard Work of Genuine Collaboration
Benjamin Jewell, Bethany Mizushima, Kathleen Pickering, Jane Ridgway, and Walter Little Moon
No. 2, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 163 - 175

Higher education assumes a pedagogy in which academics transfer specialized and exclusive knowledge down to students and community members serving as “research subjects.” This colonially based model of higher education has been severely critiqued and substantially revised by applied anthropologists committed to a collaborative model of co-equal knowledge acquisition and exchange between academics and culturally distinct communities. This paper addresses some of the challenges in implementing a genuine collaborative model from the perspective of academics, students, and community members, in the context of research conducted on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. By meeting these challenges, genuine collaboration will transform the academic paradigm of appropriation by integrating community participants, modeling ethical practice for students, and improving the quality and accuracy of the ultimate research results, removing the artificial seams among teaching, research, and service. [collaboration, methodology, decolonization, Pine Ridge]

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Where the Rhetoric Meets the Road: Collaborative Teaching and Learning
in a Participatory, Sustainable Mountain Development Initiative in Northern Mexico
Emilia González-Clements
No. 2, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 176 - 191

The Carranza-Casillas Sustainable Mountain Development Initiative, sponsored by a private agency from Oregon, aims to build capacity of villagers in a river valley in Northern Mexico by providing training and financial, technical, and research support for their endeavors. The people share a history of exploration, conquest, colonization, migration, independence, hacienda, revolution, agrarian reform, modernization, privatization, and globalization. This article describes the exchange of teaching and learning between U.S. volunteers and local partners that builds on over twenty years of continuous mutual involvement from academic research to small participatory development projects. Participation and sustainability are development approaches that have emerged in the last few decades, which have a rich and constantly expanding literature–the rhetoric. When the rhetoric meets the road–collaborative planning in the field setting–process and content are highlighted, along with insights from research and application. [sustainable development, participatory research, technical support, Mexico]

From Direct to Deferred Reciprocity: Service- versus Community-Based Learning in International Anthropology Training
Sarah Hautzinger
No. 2, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 192 - 203

This essay shares reflections about teaching an international service learning course in Brazil for the first time in 2006 and compares these reflections to subsequent efforts to adjust the course to enhance learning outcomes in 2008. From the 2006 pilot experience, in which the course was based on a service learning model (SL), it was apparent that with a relatively short time in the field and students’ limited language skills, cultural competency, and personal relationships, the SL model did not offer students the opportunity to gain a highly contextualized understanding of difference that is a core commitment of anthropology. In 2008, we redesigned the course strongly in the direction of community-based learning (hereafter CBL), and away from a pure service model. Where the SL model flirts with presumption and unrealistic expectations in the face of students’ cultural competence, I suggest, the CBL model can swing too far in the direction of social tourism and superficiality. What remains the same, regardless of SL or CBL methodology, is the overall commitment to various considerations of reciprocity with those with whom we enter into relationships as a result of academic experiences that are civically engaged and problem-based (applied) in their orientation to the discipline of anthropology. [reciprocity, service learning, community-based learning, international field courses, Brazil, Latin America]

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Practicing Fieldwork: The Transformational Value of a Collaborative Ethnographic
Field School in Ecuador
Jean N. Scandlyn, John Brett, and Sharry Erzinger
No. 2, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 204 - 216

This article describes and critically evaluates a new and developing field school of the University of Colorado Denver (UCD) in the rural lowland community of Mondaña, Ecuador. The program combines Participatory Action Research (PAR) (Minkler 2000) with Rapid Assessment Process (RAP) (Beebe 2001) to conduct on-going research on sustainable development and health. Mondaña is home to the Yachana Lodge, a for-profit, award-winning ecotourism lodge whose profits help to support the Colegio Técnica Yachana (CTY), a technical high school that teaches male and female students from the Amazonian region, most of whom are indigenous, skills in sustainable agriculture, animal husbandry, ecotourism, and microenterprise. Students from UCD work closely with colegio students to complete each year’s research project and present the results to the community. Although the field school uses a team-based approach to research in contrast to the more usual model where students conduct independent research projects, it nonetheless provides students with the opportunity for a transformative educational experience as demonstrated in their final reflection papers. [Ecuador, ethnographic field school, sustainable development, Participatory Action Research, rapid assessment process]

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Commentary: Awards of the High Plains Society for Applied Anthropology
Carla Littlefield
No. 2, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 217 - 218

Commentary: Reimagining Ourselves and Our Work: A Challenge to My Fellow Anthropologists, Some Thoughts upon Receiving the 2008 Omar Stewart Award
Pennie Magee
No. 2, Vol. 28, 2008, pp 219 - 222

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